1. What are the signs a clinician would look for to mark the progression from renal insufficiency to renal failure? What changes should be made to the diet. 2. Why do patients protein needs increase once they reach stage 5 CKD? The Progression from Renal Insufficiency to Renal Failure: Signs, Diet Changes, and Kcal Recommendations for Hemodialysis Patients

The Progression from Renal Insufficiency to Renal Failure: Signs, Diet Changes, and Kcal Recommendations for Hemodialysis Patients

 

Renal insufficiency and renal failure are both serious conditions that can lead to significant health problems for those affected. It is therefore important for clinicians to be able to identify the signs of progression from renal insufficiency to renal failure, as well as the diet changes that should be made in order to mitigate the effects of the condition. Additionally, clinicians should understand the kcal recommendations for hemodialysis (HD) patients in order to ensure that they are providing adequate nutrition. The signs of progression from renal insufficiency to renal failure can include an increase in serum creatinine, a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a decrease in urine output, and an increase in proteinuria (Zhang et al., 2018). Clinicians should also take note of any changes in the patient’s physical appearance, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling of the extremities (Goh & Taguchi, 2016). Once a patient reaches stage 5 CKD, it is important for their diet to be modified in order to meet their. Cont…

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