2 coments each one 150 words (CITATION AND REFERENCE). BY 8/20


Musculoskeletal system consists of muscles, bones, joints and associated tissues such as ligaments and tendons; which performs various functions to allow movement of the body. Common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal system includes conditions that affects various body parts:

Joints e.g. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.
Bones e.g. osteoporosis, osteopenia, traumatic fractures and associated fragility fractures
Muscles e.g. sarcopenia
Spines e.g. back and neck pain
Multiple body areas or systems e.g. regional and widespread pain disorders; inflammatory diseases; vasculitis with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Musculoskeletal dysfunction conditions are typically characterized by persistent pain and limitations in mobility, dexterity and functional ability, reducing ability to work and participate in social roles with associated impact on mental well-being. Symptoms associated with musculoskeletal dysfunctions include pain, numbness, edema, warmth, spasms of muscles, stiffness and tenderness. All these alterations in musculoskeletal dysfunction can be due to injury, infection, inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions.
Metabolic dysfunctions are the group of metabolic abnormalities that include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity and many other conditions. Common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with metabolic dysfunctions include:

Uncontrolled blood pressure
Presence of insulin resistance with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance
Excess body fat around the waist and other body parts
Abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels

Symptoms associated with metabolic diseases include high blood pressure, large waist circumference, over-weight, symptoms of diabetes such as increased thirst and urination, fatigue and blurred vision. with high blood sugar level. Hyperlipidemia is characterized by the symptoms of high triglyceride level or low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
Multisystem health dysfunctions are the abnormalities in the anatomical or physiological functioning in multiple organ or system. Also called as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or multiple organ failure (MOF). This is an altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to achieve homeostasis. Common pathophysiological and abnormal findings associated with multisystem health dysfunctions includes m multiple system atrophy (MSA) – Degenerative neurological disorder; liver failure; respiratory failure; kidney failure.
Symptoms associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome include MSA leading to loss of involuntary functions, head and neck infections, chest and pulmonary infections, high fever, increased heart rate and blood pressure, decreased urine output, fast breathing, and fluid retention causing swelling in extremities.
Reference: Falkner, A., & Green, S. Z. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/


The musculoskeletal system carries the weight of the body and enables individuals to carry out basic functions such as walking or carrying loads. An abnormal finding with musculoskeletal complexities is a weakened system that limits an individual’s mobility. The common pathophysiology of metabolic complexities is insulin resistance and obesity which can lead to other complexities. Symptoms that are associated with musculoskeletal complexities are pain and tenderness in affected areas, swelling, loss of movement or stiffness and weakness. According to the World Health Organization (2019), back pain is the leading cause of disability in the world. Therefore, musculoskeletal complexities have the potential to drastically affect a patient’s quality of life. This also has an impact on the patient psychologically and the patient might not be healthy overall to participate fully in life. For instance, impaired musculoskeletal function means that the patient’s mobility is limited. Therefore, he or she might have to rely on loved ones to provide support to carry out activities of daily living such as going to work or engaging in recreational activities like cycling. Pain forces the patient to be dependent on medication. Metabolic complexities also have a similar negative impact on the life of a patient. Common symptoms are high blood sugar and an increase in the circumference of the waist. Collins et al. (2018) note that people who suffer from metabolic complexities have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, weight gain might limit the ability of a person to function optimally in ADLs such as walking since he or she might run out of breath and need a rest. Musculoskeletal, metabolic and multisystem complexities vary but they all have an adverse effect on the patient’s life.
Collins, K. H., Herzog, W., MacDonald, G. Z., Reimer, R. A., Rios, J. L., Smith, I. C., … & Hart, D. A. (2018). Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and musculoskeletal disease: common inflammatory pathways suggest a central role for loss of muscle integrity. Frontiers in physiology, 9, 112. Doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00112
World Health Organization. (2019, November 26). Musculoskeletal conditions. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/musculoskeletal-conditions.

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