The attached file/assignment needs to be put in own words so it doesn't pick up plagiarism.It should be numbered accordingly and it needs to make since when changed. 1.The majority of a childs young years are spent in the classroom environment. Therefore, having the right interventions put in place will assist in the learning process of learners. Many other aspects such as the way a school is run, the attitudes of educators and learners set the tone for the teaching and learning in the classroom environment. It is vitally important that a school has a strong positive leader to be a role model and motivate the school to reach for the stars and achieve many academic goals. If the leader is able to motivate the school and put in effective plans for the school, it will allow for growth of educators and learners and make them want to do better. The following essay will consist of a critical analysis of a case study of which I will point out circumstances and issues that the school has as well as how it effects the duties of educators, management and learners also I will discuss its contribution to poor culture of teaching and learning. I will then move to discuss 3 theoretic concepts relating to the case study. A critical discussion of an action plan which the principal will take to improve the culture of teaching and learning will then unfold. Lastly, a justification of my ideas will be discussed with links of the action plan and theories learned. 2.The school is seen as an organisation, which is a collection of many people, such as school management, the principal, educators, and learners who work together as a collection to achieve variety of goals and creates a positive culture for teaching and learning to take place. If this collection of people does not work together, many circumstances and issues may arise, and this will impact the culture of teaching and learning in a negative manner. It will also have a negative effect on the way the school is run and duties of teachers and learners making it hard for them to achieve a variety of goals. Looking at the case study there are a number of circumstances which are affecting the culture of the school. Firstly, 40% of the staff are senior educators who have been in the school for many years, they are of a much older age. We ask ourselves, is age just a number when it comes to the teaching environment and is experience all that matters. When looking at the 21st century many schools are moving towards incorporating technology with their teachings in urban areas. Older teachers will tend to find difficulty in this integration of teaching as a result they will only stick to their method of teaching which they use to. When looking at older teachers and their physical fitness, this takes a tall on them as they are unable to go the extra mile in pushing learners to achieve goals as they get tired very easily (The impact of teachers age in a school environment 2014:08). In relation to technology older teachers will not have the patience or time to learn how to incorporate technology in their lessons which will have a negative effect on the teaching and learning taking place, as by having videos and pictures in a lesson it will benefit the child and help them understand the concept being taught. Also, many schools require report cards to be done using a computer by the older teachers not knowing how to use it this will affect their duties of completing report cards on time. The second issue is that majority of the staff (60%) which are not qualified or has very little or no teaching experience. This threatens the quality of education which is being taught to learners in result disadvantaging learners. If the teachers are not qualified this means that they do not have the knowledge nor do, they have skills to teach. This affects the duties of the educator as they are unable to give learners the full knowledge, they require in understanding concepts being taught and this will result in learners obtaining low marks or unable to obtain any marks. This in result has a negative contribution to the culture of teaching and learning as teachers are not skilled and do not have sufficient knowledge on unpacking work, they will struggle to put strategies in place to assist learners with further understanding of a specific content being taught. The third issue being result 60% of learners attained below average in learning areas while there was a huge number of learners who did not achieve anything. There are many factors which contribute to this namely the attitudes of learners, the quality of education they are receiving as well as the educators involvement, if the learner does not have a positive attitude to their learning and does not play their part in conducting further research and extra learning for better understanding which they require to complete tests and examinations it will affect the childs results .If the quality of education is not up to standard , meaning the selection of content to be taught and placing more emphasis on some content is not established by the managers of the school, learners will not be fully prepared for tests and exams in result they will not produce good marks also if there is unqualified teachers they will not have sufficient training to teach learners. The involvement of educators, if they do not motivate their learners and encourage them, learners will not believe in themselves and in result will not believe they can do well in tests. These factors contribute to the culture of teaching and learning as none of the collection of people are motivated, have the drive to go further in expanding knowledge and result in teaching being mediocre. Fourthly teachers are teaching directly from the prescribed textbooks and learning is aided by chalk-talk only. Basically, the teachers are only using specific textbooks relating to each subject and using the chalk board to write down whats taught of the lesson. This is an older method of teaching. In relation to the 21st century this method of teaching limits learners is the culture of teaching and learning, as there are different personalities in the classroom setting and learners learn differently, some prefer being hands-on while others are auditory learners. By sticking to only one teaching method, these hinders the learning of others being taught. The situation has a great effect on the learners as their learning is limited and there are not enough strategies put in place by educators to contribute and accommodate the learning needs of others. Finally, the older teachers are unwilling to change their teaching style, resulting in the younger teachers following them. This issue is a series matter as it shows that there is no room for change of teaching styles and that management is failing to set up meetings to brainstorm new styles and strategies of teaching. The situation affects specific needs of learners and the different ways they learn this affect contributes to the culture of learning and teaching. As a result, if the styles are not changed it will make it extremely difficult for learners to understand the content of work being taught to them resulting in them not attaining sufficient knowledge and understanding of a specific topic being taught. Therefore, if a school faces circumstances, it is those circumstances that will have a negative impact on the schools achievements, the teaching strategies and the manner in which learners learn. The organisation of a school is dependent on the people involved in the setting. It is the manager and leaders job to have the necessary skills to direct actions of people to be aware of the schools objectives. The manager-leader need to be very careful when implementing the needed skills, because the manner in which they carry it out can either have a negative or positive proclamation on the people within the organisation. Motivation consists of 3 key elements namely intensity, which is how hard a person tries, direction which is quality of effort and persistence how long the individual is able to maintain the effort (Thatcher 2019:4). Motivation is a process which the manager-leader has to take into consideration, they have to think about the needs of educators and learners , a driving force which will motivate them to achieve a goal, recognition of their behaviour such as their efforts made , look at the consequences that will come out of this process, the satisfaction or dissatisfaction in relation to unqualified educators the aim is to obtain their qualification and lastly the manager-leader needs to provide feedback to assist with staff knowing if they were unsuccessful and they will want to work harder. 3.To instil the motivation process, we incorporate it with theories related to motivation so that not only is the staff willing to do better but also the learners resulting in a positive culture for teaching and learning to take place and goals to be achieved. The first theoretical concept that can be used on these circumstances are Hertzbergs two-factor theory of motivation as it focuses on what motivates people and their job satisfaction. The theory states that, peoples job satisfaction is dependent on two kinds of factors these factors are, factors for satisfaction (motivation) and factors for dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) (Two factor theory by Frederick Herzberg 2013:03). Motivators comprise of job status, ones performance and responsibilities, recognition at school and opportunities for growth. The relationship with colleagues, salary, physical work environment and the relationship between the principal and staff fall under hygiene factors. Job dissatisfaction are influence by hygiene factors and job satisfactions are influenced by motivation factors by improving motivation factors this increases job satisfaction and improving hygiene factors decreases job dissatisfaction. The school environment has 4 different combinations which exists, namely, high hygiene and motivation, this is the perfect setting with staff being highly motivated, then you get high hygiene and low motivation staff is not motivated and see their job as a pay check. Thirdly you get low hygiene and high motivation staff is motivated but have complaints about working conditions. The last one is low hygiene and motivation which is what the school in the case study is going through staff is not motivated and complain about changing their style of teaching resulting in them not achieving any goal. A change in the motivation factors has a long-lasting effect on the staffs performance. In order to take away dissatisfaction it is important to find the factors that contribute to it when looking at the case study, this could be due to the unwillingness to change teaching styles and having more unqualified staff. Once dissatisfaction is eliminated, the principal can focus on motivating the staff. Ways in which can create conditions for satisfaction is by creating a condition for good performance, e.g., when teachers make a change in their teaching styles. Offering training opportunities, send educators to workshops to build their confidence to teach and for improving their teaching skills as a result it will help unqualified teachers gain the knowledge needed for teaching learners. Offer opportunities for growth, if an educator is working hard to achieve school goals and there are open opportunities for advancement, example opening for an HOD post consider them as a possible candidate. Improve the salary of SGB teachers to motivate them to work harder. For changes to occur in school culture the measure of motivation investments is needed to be bigger. To summarise, Hertzbergs theory is about motivating staff. In order to motivate staff using motivation factors, hygiene factors need to be taken care of first. Meaning the things that are seen as obstacles need to be removed in order for educators and learners to perform to the best of their abilities. Another theory is goal-setting and management by objectives, this is the personal management techniques that the principle and staff work together on to keep a record and to monitor goals that are set. They both identity common goals, the teachers also set goals of which they want to achieve example finishing their degree and the pass rate of the learners. They will also set up the standard for measuring their performance and what actions will be taken to obtaining goals. In other words, this theory regulates a process of dialogue, the principle passes plans and objectives to be met to educators, this is goals passed from one organization level to another. Goals are important as it gets educators to work towards a specific goal and are seen as a source of motivation as these goals that are set will tell the educators what is expected of them and how much of effort they need putting in, attaining the goal (Van Deventer 2016:193). The goal theory is important as it sets the behaviour for staff as so, that they are aware how to behave in order to achieve goals set, as by achieving goals it brings a sense of satisfaction when they have achieved it. The MBO setting directs educators attention to a goal, regulates their efforts due to them being motivated to act accordingly, it develops the implication of strategies put in place. The manner in which people respond and act is guided by goals. By instilling goal outcomes are obtained in the performance of educators. Outcomes include, goal-setting and performance, this is where you give educators a specific time in which they need to complete a task, this will push the educator to complete it and to meet the goals set. Practical implications, which are for the education leader to take into consideration, such as setting goals that are challenging yet are on a realistic level, performance goals should be taken into consideration for maintaining motivation and give feedback on goals that are accurate. There are 5 principles in goal setting and management by objective they are clarity, challenge, commitment, feedback and task complexity (Chetty 2019:01). Clarity is giving clear goals which will reduce work errors. Challenges, goals need to be challenging although they need to be achievable, positively reward teachers for achieving challenging tasks as this motivates them to do better. Commitment, this is where the principle and educators agree on goals and are committed to use different resources to achieve a goal. Feedback, this is change to correct a goal before it is achieved and the principal can discuss the performance of an educator. Task complexity, if a goal is hard to achieve give more time or offer training programmes to assists. Therefore, MBO allows for identifying and planning to achieve goals and allow for collaboration of principle and educators. The next theory is Vrooms expectancy theory, which he believes that peoples motivation is dependent on three factors namely, expectancy, instrumentality and valence. In expectancy this is what employees expect from their own efforts and the relation to good performance. The level of difficulty the educator experiences is part of the expectation, example, older educators may find it difficult to incorporate technology in lessons. The principal can respond to the matter by finding ways to motivate the educator and this can be done by training old educators while building their confidence. According to Vroom, the more effort that is put in, will lead to better performance of educators. Educators could be stimulated to put extra effort by rewarding them if the task is complete early example, they can leave school with the children. Management needs to give the right level of support and have the correct resources for educators. Instrumentality, each educator is an instrument that impacts on the result of a school. It is not a difficult trait to learn. This is based on the educators performance which needs to be good in order for achieving desired goals. The management team can stimulate this by offering rewards in salary. The educator needs to believe that if they perform to the best of their ability, they will be shown appreciation for their work. Valence, this is where the educators achievement is valued, keeping in mind that each individual is different. The value is based on the educators own basic needs. It is good for the management team to get to know their educators individually and find out their personal needs, as some might like money while other prefer days off. Individual factors assist in achieving a goal and how an educator needs behave. If educators combine their knowledge and skills with the motivation, they get from their management they will be able to achieve specific goals. To motivate educators there needs to be a positive connection among performance and effort. Perception is important in this theory, as management teams may think certain educators only require days off or increase in salary but those are not enough to motivate educators, as each individuals perceptions differ from others. Some educators may require more support from the principal or management teams. If there is no respect given to educators, this could lead to them being demotivated. This theory is not only about rewarding personal interest, it is the associators educators have with regards to their performance. 4.The key in building a positive culture in a school and in the teaching and learning environment is the relationship between the principal, teachers and the learners. Even in the most challenging setting improving the culture of a school is still possible. The principals action plan should start with building strong relationships , the principal should get to know the staff, identity their differences and similarities this will help him to know how to communicate to them and it will build a strong relationship between them because if a strong relationship is formed both will be able to work effectively together. Set up weekly meetings with staff to give them goals, in the meeting they will be able to work together in strategizing ways to achieve goals of the school and they will be able to communicate if the goals where met and what they can do differently. Offer more resources for the classroom environment as well as for educators. The principal can employ rules for educators and offer rewards, relating to the unqualified teachers, the principal can give them a specific time frame to complete their qualification and if they do so the principal can reward them by making them permanent educators in the school. Recognize teachers efforts. In staff meeting praise top educators for their contribution of effort. The principal needs to be a role model, if staff and learners see the principal behaving in a positive manner and completing tasks, they will be influenced to do better (Truby 2018:4). Clarify classroom and school rules, communicate expectations to learners and staff. Positive rules create a stable environment for learning of educational concepts. By drawing up a vision and mission statement, this will help with making teachers aware of their duties and what is expected from learners. The principal could offer training workshops to assist with new methods of teaching styles. Give learners a specific time to achieve a goal example, improving marks within a specific time. Celebrate the achieving goals and praise them and let them know that their efforts do not go in vain. 5.In relation to Hertzbergs theory, satisfaction is influenced by motivation factors, so by the principal praising learners for their efforts as well will motivate them and show recognition of their performances. Also by offering training workshop, it will be able to change their teaching style and this will benefit the learners as they will be able to learn specific content in either a hands-on approach or the use of different resources the teacher will have the knowledge to use different approaches resulting in learners knowing and understanding content being taught and this will have a positive impact on learners results. By giving a specific time limit to achieving a goal which is in the MBO theory, this will make teachers want to work harder in achieving and giving of quality standard of teaching so that learners improve their marks. By employing rules for unqualified teachers to complete their studies and giving them a specific time frame, it will motivate them to have it completed as they will know that they will be rewarded for their actions. Like in the expectancy theory, some teachers want to be motivated rather than just getting money and days off if the principal pushes the unqualified teachers it will motivate them to do better. 6.In conclusion, in order to achieve goals in a school everyone part of the school system needs to play their part. The principal plays the biggest role in school management as it is the principal that steers the motivation of learners and teachers. In order for a school to achieve goals they firstly need to set specific goals which they need to achieve by this they need to point out key factors that are hindering their performance and has to come up with an action plan by doing this it will help with taking the necessary steps and considering specific theories of practice it will help a school in achieving full potential.
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