(a) Outline an approach to detect apoptosis early within a bioreactor cell culture (i.e. online monitoring). (7 marks) (b) Why would inhibiting apoptosis be an approach considered by biopharmaceutical scientists when growing cells in a bioreactor? (3 marks) Online Monitoring of Apoptosis in Bioreactor Cell Culture: A Potential Approach

Online Monitoring of Apoptosis in Bioreactor Cell Culture: A Potential Approach

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential process in biology and is increasingly becoming a key focus of bioprocess development. Early detection of apoptosis in bioreactor cell cultures is important for controlling and optimizing product yield, as well as understanding the mechanisms of action of certain drugs on cells. One approach to detect apoptosis early within a bioreactor cell culture is through the use of online monitoring techniques. Online monitoring techniques can be used to measure various parameters, including cell viability, cell morphology, and cell density. By measuring these parameters, the process can be monitored throughout the bioprocess development, and any changes in the cell population can be detected. For example, changes in cell morphology, such as an increase in cell size or the appearance of apoptotic bodies, can be used to detect apoptosis (MacMillan et al., 2016). In addition, changes in cell viability or cell density can be used to detect apoptosis, as the number of apoptotic cells in the culture increases. In addition, various techniques can be used to further detect apoptosis within the cell culture. Fluorescent probes, such as Annexin V, can be used to detect the presence of early apoptotic cells, as Annexin V binds to. Cont…

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