The Role of Chromosomal Translocations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Exploring the Cellular Processes Involved
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of bone marrow cancer, characterized by abnormal growth of white blood cells. In about 30% of AML cases, scientists have found that large portions of DNA are moved from their normal location and are instead located on a different chromosome, known as chromosomal translocations. To understand how this occurs, research has focused on the cellular processes involved. Cell division, or mitosis, is responsible for the even division of chromosomes among daughter cells. During mitosis, the chromosomes are first condensed and then moved to opposite poles of the cell. The failure of chromosomes to move correctly to the poles during mitosis can result in chromosomal translocations. Additionally, chromatin remodeling is a cellular process that is essential for DNA replication and repair. Chromatin remodeling can also influence the formation of chromosomal translocations.
Studies have found that chromosomal translocations in AML are driven by a combination of errors during mitosis and DNA damage caused by chromatin remodeling. For instance, a study by Reifenberger et al. (2020) found that chromosomal translocations in AML are caused by a combination of mitotic errors and chromatin-mediated DNA damage. Similarly, a study by Wang et al. (2016) showed that 87% of AML cases showed chromosomal translocations in which DNA damage caused by chromatin remodeling was a major contributor. Cont…
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