AP/HIST 3150 2021-2022 EARLY GREEK HISTORY MID-TERM EXAM Answer ALL questions (there

AP/HIST 3150
Answer ALL questions (there are five questions in all).
The exam is open book. You can use as much time as you need, but exams must be submitted by the due date, which will be 11:59 p.m. on Monday 20 December. Completed exams are to be submitted via Turn-it-in.
Because this is an open book exam, you can (and should) give precise references to ancient sources. But do not cite or quote from textbooks etc. in your answers.
1. Identify and briefly explain the significance of TEN of the following. Write no more than two sentences for each. Alternative spellings are given where relevant (10 x 2% = 20%).
Ascra (or Askra)
Eruption of Santorini
Periander (or Periandros)
Linear B
Al Mina
Black Athena
beehive or tholos tomb
Pittacus (or Pittakos)
Lelantine War
Cnossus (or Knossos)
Naucratis (or Naukratis)
Archilochus (or Archilochos)
oral composition
Heinrich Schliemann
2. Place the following in chronological order (earliest first). If you are uncertain about the correct sequence, provide whatever chronological information you have. (5%)
Age of tyrants
Minoan Civilization
Sack of Troy
First Greek colonies in Sicily
3. Which of the following are islands? (5 x 1% = 5%)
4. Comment on any TWO of the following six sources. Identify the source and provide context. Demonstrate how the source contributes to our understanding of early Greek history. Discuss points of interest and any problems of historical interpretation that it raises (2 x 20% = 40%).
“Thither Phoenicians came, men famous for their ships, sharp traffickers, countless trinkets in their black vessel. Now there was in my father’s household a Phoenician woman, tall and good-looking, highly skilled in fine handiwork, and her these crafty Phoenicians set about to beguile. First, while she was washing clothes near the hollow ship, one of them made love to her, a thing that fuddles the senses of truly feminine women, even one that’s well-behaved. Then he asked her who she was and from where, and she at once pointed out my father’s high-roofed house, and declared: ‘I come from Sidon, that bronze-rich city, and am the daughter of Arybas, a man who had rivers of wealth; but a bunch of Taphian pirates kidnapped me on my way back from the fields, and brought me here. I was sold to the man who lives up there, and he paid a good price for me.’
(Homer, Odyssey)
(b) For when a man who is not working sees another who has grown rich, who is eager to plow and to plant and to place his house in order, this neighbor works to rival his neighbor who hastens to wealth. This Strife is good for mortals. So the ceramicist is angered by the ceramicist, and the carpenter by the carpenter, and the beggar envies the beggar; and the singer, the singer. O Perses, lay these things up in your heart, so that the evil Strife does not hold your heart back from labor as you gawk and obsess with quarrels in the agora. For he has little concern with quarrels and things that take place in the agora, he who holds in his house the abundant and ripe sustenance of the things that the earth bears, the grain of Demeter. When you have plenty of that, you can engage in quarrels and conflict for the sake of another’s possessions—you will have no second chance to do this. But without further ado let us settle our dispute with straight judgments that come from Zeus, the best ones. For we have already divided our estate, but you carried off much more, greatly feeding the pride of the bribe-devouring basileis, who wish to make this their judgment—the fools!
(Hesiod, Works and Days)
(c) The old form of government was hereditary monarchy with established rights and limitations; but as Hellas became more powerful and as the importance of acquiring money became more and more evident, tyrannies were established in nearly all the cities, revenues increased, shipbuilding flourished, and ambition turned towards sea-power. The Corinthians are supposed to have been the first to adopt more or less modern methods in shipbuilding, and it is said that the first triremes ever built in Hellas were laid down in Corinth. Then there is the Corinthian shipwright, Ameinocles, who appears to have built four ships for the Samians. It is nearly 300 years ago (dating from the end of this present war) that Ameinocles went to Samos. And the first naval battle on record is the one between the Corinthians and the Corcyraeans: this was about 260 years ago. Corinth, planted on its isthmus, had been from time immemorial an important trade centre, though in ancient days traffic was by land rather than by sea. The communications between those who lived inside and those who lived outside the Peloponnese had to pass through Corinthian territory. So Corinth grew to power by her riches, as is shown by the adjective ‘wealthy’ which is given to her by the ancient poets.
(d) Resolved by the Assembly. Since Apollo spontaneously told Battos and the Therans to colonize Cyrene, it has been decided by the Therans to send Battos off to Libya, as Archagetes and as King, with the Therans to sail as his Companions. On equal and fair terms shall they sail according to family (?), with one son to be conscripted […] adults and from the [other] Therans those who are free-born […] shall sail. If the colonists establish the settlement, kinsmen who sail later to Libya shall be entitled to citizenship and offices and shall be allotted portions of the land which has no owner. But if they do not successfully establish the settlement and the Therans are incapable of giving it assistance, and they are pressed by hardship for five years, from that land shall they depart, without fear, to Thera, to their own property, and they shall be citizens. Any man who, if the city sends him, refuses to sail, will be liable to the death-penalty and his property shall be confiscated. The man harboring him or concealing him, whether he be a father aiding his son or a brother his brother, is to suffer the same penalty as the man who refuses to sail.
(Inscription from Cyrene)
(e) When Iphitos reinstated the contest, as I have already stated, men could not remember what had happened in the early days; so, as the memory of it began to come back, little by little, they would make addition of whatever aspects of the competition they had been able to recollect. There is clear proof of this in the footrace: it was first offered for competition at the time from which the continuous tradition of Olympiads begins, and it was won by an Elean, Koroibos. There is no statue of Koroibos, admittedly, at Olympia itself, but his tomb is situated on the borders of Elis. Subsequently, at the fourteenth Olympiad, the two-lap race was added, and the crown of wild olive offered for it was won by Hypenos, a man from Pisa; and at the one after that, Akanthos of Sparta won the long-distance race. For the eighteenth Olympiad they remembered to restore the pentathlon and the wrestling competition; Lampis won the former and Eurybatos the latter—both again Spartans again. At the twenty-third Olympiad prizes for boxing were given again, and the victor was Onomastos from Smyrna, which was already at that time part of Ionia. At the twenty-fifth they gave recognition to the race for fullgrown horses, and the winner proclaimed in the chariot-race was a Theban, Pagondas. At the eighth Olympiad after that they admitted the men’s pankration and the horse-race. The horse-race was won by Krauxidas of Krannon, while Lygdamis, a Syracusan, defeated all corners in the pankration. There is a monument to this man Lygdamis near the stone quarries at Syracuse.
(Pausanias, Description of Greece)
(f) … the Lesbians established this great conspicuous precinct to be held in common, and put in it altars of the blessed immortals, and they entitled Zeus God of Suppliants and you, the Aeolian, Glorious Goddess, Mother of all, and this third they named Kemelios, Dionysos, eater of raw flesh. Come, with gracious spirit hear our prayer, and rescue us from these hardships and from grievous exile; and let their Avenger pursue the son of Hyrrhas, since once we swore, cutting … , never (to abandon?) any of our comrades, but either to die at the hands of men who at that time came against us and to lie clothed in earth, or else to kill them and rescue the people from their woes. But Potbelly did not talk to their hearts; he recklessly trampled the oaths underfoot and devours our city … not lawfully … grey … written(?) … Myrsilos.
5. Answer ONE of the following questions. Be sure to include references to relevant sources in your answers. (30%)
(a) What challenges does the historian face in using Homer’s Odyssey as a source?
(d) What impact did the Ancient Near East and Egypt have on early Greece?
(e) What has archaeology contributed to our knowledge of early Greek history?

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