Create a 19 pages page paper that discusses framing construction techniques. Concrete frames are also known better as reinforced concrete frames and are composed of vertical elements known as columns and horizontal elements known as beams. These elements are connected together using rigid joints. The structures are often cast using monolithic methods which ensure that the structure acts in unison. These frames are known to be resistant to both gravitational loadings as well as lateral loadings such as through bending within both beams and columns. Reinforced concrete frames are constructed in a number of different ways. The major ones are:Concrete displays a high compressive strength but relatively lower tensile strength. In order to augment concretes tensile strength, it is reinforced with other materials such as steel bars because such materials have better tensile properties. Moreover concrete displays nearly constant elasticity at low levels of stress while the elasticity tends to decrease as stress levels are increased as matrix cracking begins to form. The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is also low and concrete tends to shrink as it ages. The phenomenon of shrinkage and tension ensures that nearly all concrete structures develop cracks to some extent. Creep is also observable in concrete that is subjected to continuous long term loading. (Kosmatka & Panarese, 1988)Concrete frames provide an easy method of creating high rise structures that are able to respond to both gravitational and lateral loading with ease. Moreover, concrete frames are rigid enough to resist earthquakes and other similar calamities with ease. The recent rise in the costs of reinforcement and steel prices has driven the costs of concrete frames up but in comparison to steel frames, the price of concrete frames and steel frames is close enough. .
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