Characteristics of Different Types of RNAs that Regulate Gene Expression
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is essential for gene expression and regulation. It can be divided into two distinct types: messenger RNA (mRNA) and non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Each type of RNA has its own unique characteristics that make it well-suited for its role in gene expression. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA transcribed from DNA and is responsible for transporting genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. mRNA is single-stranded, relatively short, and highly unstable. It is quickly degraded by RNase enzymes, making its half-life very short (Schlief et al., 2021). mRNA molecules are then translated into proteins, which are responsible for the biological functions of an organism.
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is a type of RNA that does not encode any proteins. This type of RNA falls into two categories: microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). miRNA is a short, single-stranded RNA molecule that binds to mRNA and inhibits its translation into proteins (Liu et al., 2019). lncRNA is a longer, double-stranded RNA molecule that can influence gene expression or act as a transcriptional regulator (Liu et al., 2016). Cont…
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