Compare and contrast the use of TWO different levels of evidence.
Cohort Studies versus Animal Research
Studies have different levels of evidence depending on their methodology. The levels of evidence include in vitro research, case reports, case-control reports, animal research, etcetera. This paper focuses on the similarities and differences between cohort studies and animal research. As the name suggests, animal research involves non-human animal specimens or subjects whose behavioral or biological systems focus on the experiment (Martínez-Cerdeño, & Noctor, 2019). On the other hand, a cohort study is a form of longitudinal study where a researcher follows participants for a specified period. Though some cohort studies also involve non-human animal subjects, their main distinguishing characteristic is their longitudinal study design (Du et al., 2018). Cohort research analyzes its subjects over an extended period depending on the nature of the study. The researchers enroll and follow respondents with similar attributes like a particular condition or receiving special treatment and compare them with another group free of the condition or not under treatment. Even though both cohort study and animal research have made substantial contributions to medical research and are irreplaceable, the two methodologies are not only experimental but also resource-intensive.
Both cohort and animal studies contribute significantly to medical advancements benefiting humans. According to the British Royal Society, nearly all of the 20th Century healthcare advancements stem from animal research (Martínez-Cerdeño, & Noctor, 2019). Computer models or simulations could not possibly replace live animal testing. While animal research provides the immediate effects of a particular lifestyle or medication, cohort research is essential for temporal sequence clarity (Du et al., 2018). These types of studies can tell whether an outcome was preceded by exposure or if the respondents are responding to a placebo effect. Cohort studies focus on a participant’s biological metrics like weight and disease infection status at the beginning of the research and trace these variables over a long period. This is the level of dedication necessary to confirm the efficacy of possibly poisonous drugs or substances………….
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