transcription and translation
Transcription and translation are two processes used in the field of molecular biology. Transcription is the process of transforming genetic information encoded in DNA into an RNA molecule. Translation is the process of translating the genetic code encoded in an RNA molecule into an amino acid sequence. Both processes are essential for the production of proteins in the body. Although these two processes are very similar, they have distinct differences. Transcription and translation share the common purpose of transferring genetic information from one form to another. In the case of transcription, the genetic code encoded in DNA is copied and transformed into an RNA molecule. During translation, the genetic code stored in an RNA molecule is decoded and used to produce a polypeptide chain of amino acids. Both processes rely on the same set of codons and the same set of transfer RNAs (tRNAs).
Despite their similarities, there are several differences between transcription and translation. Transcription only involves the production of an RNA molecule, while translation involves the production of a polypeptide. Transcription involves the use of the enzyme RNA polymerase, while translation relies on the ribosome as the catalyst for the process. Additionally, transcription does not require energy input, but translation does require energy input in the form of ATP (Quintero et al., 2016; Li et al., 2021). Cont….
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