Define and differentiate Vulnerability, Risk, and Threat Define the term “Zero-Day Exploit”. Discuss some recent examples where one or two ZDEs were used to bypass cybersecurity controls to open a hole in vulnerable Critical Infrastructures, SCADA systems, or Industrial Control Systems (ICS) so malicious code could enter to cause disruptive effects. Describe how ZDEs can possibly be used by nation states, criminals, and political extremists. Vulnerability Risk Threat ZDE

ZDE Vulnerability Threat Threat ZDE
Vulnerability can refer to any weakness or flaw that can allow an attacker to gain access to sensitive information or take malicious action (Zhang et. al., 2020). Fan et. al., 2019, defines risk as “the likelihood or probability” of an untoward event, such a cyberattack. This is often measured using the impact of the event and its likelihood (Fan and co., 2020). Threat is a source of potential harm, or an adverse action (Zhang and al. 2020). Zero-day exploit is a cyber attack which uses a vulnerability previously undiscovered in software or systems. This type of attack is particularly dangerous as the victim doesn’t know about the vulnerability so they don’t have the chance to fix or patch it. Fan et al. 2019, 2019. A zero-day attack was carried out on the Colonial Pipeline in 2021. This resulted the pipeline being shut down and fuel supply disruptions on the East Coast of the United States. (US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency 2021). Cont…
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