The Cloning of a Gene: Strategies and Enzymes Used
Gene cloning is a process whereby a gene of interest is isolated and then replicated, forming an exact genetic copy. To do this, enzymes are used to cut and paste DNA fragments, which are then inserted into an appropriate organism. There are several strategies used to clone genes, including restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and recombinant DNA technology. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a method used to create a library of DNA fragments. It involves the use of restriction enzymes to cut the gene of interest. The fragments are then separated by size and can be used to create a genetic map. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method used to amplify a single copy of DNA into thousands of copies. It relies on the use of a thermostable enzyme, such as Taq polymerase, to copy a gene of interest. The enzyme is used to synthesise the complementary strand of the gene, thereby creating multiple copies. Recombinant DNA technology is a method used to combine DNA from different sources. It involves the use of enzymes, such as DNA ligase, to link DNA from different sources. Once the DNA has been linked, it can then be introduced into a suitable host organism, such as Escherichia coli. Cont….
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