Apoptosis: An Overview of the Intrinsic Pathway
Apoptosis, commonly known as programmed cell death, is an essential process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is a major pathway that leads to apoptosis. This pathway is activated by intracellular signals, such as stress, DNA damage, and metabolic imbalances, which are sensed by the cell’s mitochondria. The pathway is composed of two main components: the cytoplasmic pathway and the mitochondrial pathway (Au-Yeung et al., 2016). The cytoplasmic pathway begins with the activation of death receptors, such as Fas and TNF-receptor-1 (TR1), by extracellular ligands. This activates a complex of proteins known as the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) (Au-Yeung et al., 2016). The DISC recruits the adaptor protein FADD and pro-caspase-8, which in turn activates procaspase-3, a key protease in the apoptotic process. Activated caspase-3 then cleaves downstream proteins and enzymes, leading to. Cont…
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