DNA double strand breaks are considered the most dangerous kind of cellular reactions carrying a high risk of endangering the life of a cell when it occurs. However, there are a number of normal cellular processes in eukaryotic cells that produce DNA double stranded breaks. Select 2 of these natural processes and for each one: Explain in detail the biological rationale of this process. The Biological Rationale Behind DNA Double Strand Breaks in Eukaryotic Cells

The Biological Rationale Behind DNA Double Strand Breaks in Eukaryotic Cells

DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most dangerous type of cellular reaction, carrying a high risk of endangering the life of a cell. As such, much research has gone into understanding the mechanism by which these breaks occur. While DNA DSB can be caused by a variety of external factors, such as radiation exposure or exposure to chemicals, there are also numerous natural processes in eukaryotic cells that produce these breaks. Two of these natural processes are homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Homologous recombination is a process in which an exchange of genetic material occurs between two homologous chromosomes. This process is a form of genetic repair, and can result in a double strand break in one or both of the chromosomes (Lisby et al., 2016). Homologous recombination plays a role in the proper functioning of a cell, as it allows for the correction of errors in the genetic material and for the proper functioning of the cell cycle.
Non-homologous end joining is the second natural process that produces DSB in eukaryotic cells. This process is a form of DNA repair that occurs when two broken pieces of DNA are rejoined in a way that does not involve homologous chromosomes (Hendricks et al., 2021). Non-homologous end joining is important for restoring the integrity of the genome and for providing a form of protection against DNA damage. Cont…..

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