even though many countries are now gathering reliable data

Note: Ch 3 & Ch. 4 pages 88 96 Dr K urges students to use the terminology the language of CD. Use certain terminology (added to today) dear Allanah. Week 2, 3 & 4 is all you need for your assignment but then at the end of the lecture he said next weeks lecture on Approaches is important. You will one or two of these theories (todays lecture) in Assignment One. There is a whole paragraph that explains your approach in your Introduction. We have already established that your assignment will focus on one of the paradigms- social development, economic etc. or an integrated CD
View complete question Note: Ch 3 & Ch. 4 pages 88 96 Dr K urges students to use the terminology the language of CD. Use certain terminology (added to today) dear Allanah. Week 2, 3 & 4 is all you need for your assignment but then at the end of the lecture he said next weeks lecture on Approaches is important. You will one or two of these theories (todays lecture) in Assignment One. There is a whole paragraph that explains your approach in your Introduction. We have already established that your assignment will focus on one of the paradigms- social development, economic etc. or an integrated CD approach. You will need some theory to back it up. Theory: explains how and why something happens or will happen e.g. why is CV spreading? principle used to justify or account for an action or activity e.g. there is homelessness in various suburbs. You address this problem in a certain approach or angle. Whichever it is, you have to situate or justify this using one of these THEORIES Everything in this world is informed by a theory. There is a body of knowledge based on research on which you are basing your work but also build on. You are contributing to a wider body of knowledge. You might have a unique contribution which others can draw on to add to the body of knowledge about why and how something occurs. If you use Functionalism, for example, you build on this theory. Community development is not theory less Applying theory links community development work to tested body of knowledge Multiple theories can be applied in one community development activity we will focus on only 6 theories of Community Development, but there are many more. Choose one that is most relevant to the topic/issue you are addressing Community Development Theories: Ecological theory Social justice theory Social capital theory Functionalism Conflict theory Symbolic interactionism Certain text books only look at the first 2. They are actually interrelated with links between them. One theory may or may not have a link but you need to find ONE at least. You may need only one of the above make your choice clear and then explain/justify this. Ecological Theory This Ecological theory links 5 interrelated themes. You have to make it clear which theme(s) you are using within the Ecological Theory: 1.The concept of Holism means that everything should be taken as a whole thing not just on its specific aspects we take a broad perspective. When there is a social problem, we need to tackle it from a generalist theme, not specific aspects. Look at social problems as a whole not just providing homes for the homelessness but the causes of homelessness, for example, can the person can afford the house; will he/she be safe in this house? The approach is a Generalist (terminology) approach Everything is related to everything else is also argued by this approach. An Integrated approach would fit with this Holistic theory 2.Sustainability the more we use something, the more we are depleting it so need to replenish it. Using this theme, giving money to the poor is not sustainable. How can we sustain this? How long can it go for? Government policies often do not have longer term sustainability Dr K adds. Can you use Holism and Sustainability at the same time? Yes 3.Diversity- this relates to valuing difference. We are not the same. There is no single answer to a problem. There would be the Best Practices (plural) there is more than one answer at one given time. Dr K gave the example in politics that the media find the Prime Minister as being arrogant in not listening to Anthony Albanese who is coming from the Holistic, Diversity approach. Racism would fit this theme. Diversity encourages decentralising and valuing different opinions. There are multiple views and this is important to value Dr K emphasises. 4.Equilibrium- closely related to Holism and Diversity. There is a need to build relationships but they need to have a fair balance. It would be argued that there can be Dualism, such as local & global or rights & responsibilities or male & female; majority & minority; competition & cooperation. There is a problem in society when the pendulum shifts to one side, such as when males dominate women. You could argue that your work will ensure equilibrium 5. Interdependence explaining that we need eachother. No country or person can exist by itself. America depicts itself in this way but is actually dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil. Students in this classroom share interdependence. Your shoes come from somewhere as do your spectacles Interdependence is important because it values relationships. In your assignment you need a one liner as to what each theme means Social Justice if the first theory doesnt work for you then this approach might work. Many CD projects are based on this theory. Somebody is not given a fair go. Social Justice is contextual and about how you treat a person based on their humanity, not on their class or age or class etc. Social justice approach ensures that every member has an equal opportunity to be heard where minorities are likely to be ignored. Social justice approach looks at how various social categories such as gender, class, ethnicity, age and disability may intersect to cause disadvantage. Dr K gave the example of the ship that had the CV19 making the point that for the first time Australians recognize that this is how refugees are treated- isolated. He also recommended the Four Corners documentary that revealed how the our SES troops shot innocent Afghans although this is not entirely relevant. It was a powerful documentary Allanah did you see it? Some soldiers may now be charged with murder. He gave the opinion that Australia cares more about animals than refugees. In other words, it is lacking humanity and a community perspective. Social Justice Theory is about: The needs of people and communities being met Human rights Equal distribution of economic resources Equality of civil, legal and industrial rights Fair and equal access to services such as housing, health and education Equality of opportunity for participation and decision making in society Empowering the vulnerable groups and people This theory is relevant for issues such as domestic violence if you argue how related to power & empowerment. It is not a man/woman issue. The law is only related to physical violence not verbal abuse. You would have to define rape or assault but there is always a cultural issue and the dominant culture will prevail in its judgement of what assault means touching a person? SJ focuses on 4 levels or angles of disadvantage: In your assignment you need to explain which point of view you are taking Individual disadvantage locates social problems within the individual so seeks person-centred solutions e.g. hardships, they include illness, depression, social disorders, addiction, problems or fear and anxiety. This is an antithesis to the Ecological Theory of the Holistic theme looks at a wider perspective. Take the focus of people with disabilities who are not given a fair go and not getting jobs. There are several ways of addressing this. You could look at the individual and argue that there are reasons behind this such as low qualifications but you wouldnt be sustainable with your solutions. There is a systemic reason such as people who do not want to work with those with disabilities You cannot use Holism if you are focussing on one individuals personal situation. Stay with one theory Dr K advises then your arguments will flow better Allanah Institutional disadvantage: involves problems caused by institutions established to deal with social issues e.g. prisons, police, schools, welfare departments, courts etc. Is an institution treating individuals fairly? Did Australia treat the Afghans fairly (the Four Corners documentary last night)? Dr K works with Ngala which focuses on parenting but they collaborate with other organisations such as housing concerns. (With a Holistic theory you are looking at a wider perspective) Structural: see social issues as lying in oppressive and inadequacies of social structures such as patriarchy, capitalism, institutional racism, colonialism etc Post-structuralist: pertains to discourse or language, ways of seeing, ways of knowing about the social issue in question e.g. causes of youth violence in Australia. You are looking at how society is looking at an issue. Dr K gave the example of America shifting the blame of CV19 to China. Or, when boys are fighting language and discourse prevail according to who is fighting. CLD culturally, linguistical diverse people, a category which Dr K says is racist. The media portrays people who are coming from CLD very derogatorily. He gives the example that the way of speaking English is diverse not monolithic yet the dominant culture will make unfair or false judgements based on accent. You must make it clear that you are focusing on one aspect although you are aware of others issues. If you tried to address all 4 that would be too much. Social Capital This theory is relevant if you need to get people together and situations where you need to understand eachother and do things out of goodwill to help because of humanity. You would use this approach if you wanted to get people together to build a library for example strong social capital Robert Putnam theorised social capital Focuses on community development activities that involve relationship or solidarity building. SC is the set of resources that enable people to things for each other out of good will e.g. trust, networks, norms SC can be strong or weak SC can be developed or promoted through bring and share activities; celebrations, meet and greet events etc E.g. Know Your Neighbour project Can you think of any community development activity where SC theory may be applied? Functionalism If you are using Functionalism you are dealing with governments or organisations who are not doing their work Also known as systems theory, equilibrium theory (from the Ecological Theory) or structural functionalism. The work of Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton Focuses on the functions of organisations or institutions that make up a social system Hospitals? Universities? Banks..? Functionalism may help to identify dysfunction in organizations or institutions Functionalism enables community development workers to see missing links in a community scheme. Sometimes governments do not recognise dysfunction until someone complains E.g. High employment rate of a particular cohort Conflict Theory CT based on Karl Maxs ideas (the father supposedly of Communism) Power and conflicts are features of all human relations Economic classes are always in conflict. There is always the tension of the poor working so hard to get the rich people where they are (who are taking advantage of the system) Ethnic groups Young and old In a Scandinavian country the older people protested about the bicycle paths Racial conflicts Conflicts exist because power, wealth and prestige are not available to everyone CT focuses on causes and consequences of class conflicts in accessing resources, land, labour & capital CT informs community development workers to understand power dynamics and seek insights for empowering disempowered communities or groups If you are wanting to use the Conflict theoretical approach, you use the Equilibrium theme that power is uneven. In 2015, Dr K researched people who live in regional and remote Australia in the context of education. He wanted to know how these people would be affected and found that they were denied information. There is also an issue with the NDIS & The Association of DoctorsVs the government. Seven forms of power Power to make personal choices & determine life chances Power to define need Power to think and express Power to address institutions Power to access and use resources Power to engage with the economy Power to control reproduction Symbolic Interactionism an indigenous issue would fit this theory Based on the work of Herbert Blumer SI is about the meaning that people give to places and events People interpret the world through symbols which may be at variance with other peoples values or perspectives. Symbols may be verbal, nonverbal, musical or pictorial SI can be used when working a community that have special attachment to spiritual sites and cultural practices. SI is a tool for building solidarity and can be used alongside the social capital theory. A hint, Dr K said SI can be used to build capacities and start a conversation. Showing respect to that community. An example is the PM of NZ who visited a Muslim community and wore a head scarf to show respect and be accepted. This was smart Dr K said. Links to Assignment 1 Read, Explain, Apply, Reference We have looked at 6 theories with each a stand-alone. You could stick with one or link/combine with another 1 or 2. Dr K looked at topics and theories with the class 1. Immigration and domestic violence & not entitled to anything Social Justice. Diversity also 2. Domestic violence in Aboriginal communities note that Symbolic Interactionism Theory is dealing with a place, culture and cultural symbols so use the Equilibrium theme under Ecological (to do with men and women) or Social Capital 3.Domestic violence we need a coordinated approach focusing on the individuals relationship – Holism 4. Inaudible Community Development is about organising people to do something Child Abuse but HOW to you deal with it 5. inaudible Domestic Violence Social Justice 6. Homelessness is a Social Justice issue 7. Drug & alcohol it is not a Social Justice issue but Social Capital or the Ecological Theory- Equilibrium for balance (wanting to have fun but you are in a different country) theme is relevant 5.Child Abuse Social Justice 6. Refugees SJ 7. Drug Abuse inaudible, sorry. We have 2 weeks on how to address the theory and the topic. Wait til we do the Approaches lecture before you finalise

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