The Consequence of Engagement of the TLR4, CD14, and MD2 Complex with LPS in Macrophages
The engagement of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, and MD2 complex with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by macrophages is an important process in the host defense system as it plays an essential role in the recognition and response to invading pathogens (Abedin et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2017). Upon binding of LPS, TLR4 triggers downstream cascades which ultimately result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (Kim et al., 2019). These molecules are responsible for the recruitment and activation of other immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes, which can then help clear out the invading bacteria (Xia et al., 2020). In addition, the engagement of the TLR4-CD14-MD2 complex also induces the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) by macrophages that can act as a direct bactericidal agent (Hsieh et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2021). The increased production of ROS and RNS can lead to oxidative damage of the invading bacterial cell wall and DNA, further leading to its eventual death and clearance (Chen et al., 2018). Cont….
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more