Explain the main features of the ethical theories of Ruth Benedict and James Rachels, Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill. Ethical Theories

Clarify the primary options of the moral theories of Ruth Benedict and James Rachels, Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill.
Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of moral relativism, moral egoism, advantage ethics, deontological ethics, utilitarianism, and different main moral theories mentioned.

Moral Theories

Philosophers all through historical past have sought to give you a time period that wholly describes ethics; nonetheless, this has not been achieved. That has primarily resulted from the completely different arguments, theories, and debates on what selection in a given scenario is correct and why that selection is the most effective plan of action. Moral theories, due to this fact, goal to current and defend solutions as to what ethical requirements as human beings we must always think about when assessing selections, actions, and establishments and the way these ethical requirements are justified. Outstanding moral theories embody utilitarianism by Mill, advantage principle by Plato and Aristotle, deontology by Kant, moral egoism by Ayn Rand, and moral relativism by Ruth Benedicts and James Rachels differing views.

Utilitarianism argues that the appropriate factor to do in any given scenario is to contemplate the pursuits of all concerned events and do no matter will accomplish the best good (finest outcomes) for the best variety of folks. Advantage principle, usually, argues that we should concentrate on what varieties of people and organizations we wish to be and what sorts of moral examples we must always mannequin reasonably than specializing in what guidelines to observe. Plato and Aristotle had completely different stands relating to the advantage principle. Plato’s ethics argues that an individual’s final happiness is determined by society, and the last word aim is to grow to be one with the universe. In distinction, Aristotle argued that an individual’s final happiness relied on the person and the last word aim was to realize excellence and grow to be a grasp. Deontology argues that people in society should observe sure absolute or almost absolute guidelines: treating folks with dignity and respect as all human beings have rights …………………….

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