Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Alcohol Dependence Correlated to Mental Health Diagnosis. American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2000) defines dependence as substance use leading to psychological and physical symptoms of tolerance, withdrawal, and the specific pattern of compulsive substance-taking behavior. causing preoccupation of the individual with ensuring substance availability and use despite the repeated negative consequences of its use. Abuse on the other hand refers to a pattern of substance use resulting in repeated and substantial harm as a consequence of substance use causing an adverse impact on interpersonal relationships, illegal activities, and inability to fulfill ones responsibilities. .Alcohol dependence has been known to result in severe illnesses and death due to psychological as well as physical effects. .American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) provides a list of criteria for the diagnosis of alcohol-related disorders (APA, 2000). It identifies two categories of disorders, alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse disorders, and alcohol-induced disorders such as withdrawal, dementia, intoxication, etc. Table 1 presents the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and abuse (Hasin, 2003).Alcohol has been attributed to increased incidences of various diseases and aggravation of disease conditions. The relationship between health and alcohol abuse is complex and multidimensional. Approximately 60 different diseases have been related to alcohol use at different levels and at least some have been found to exhibit a positive relationship. For those related adversely such as cancers of mouth, liver, and breast. epilepsy, cardiovascular diseases, etc, the disease condition aggravates with increasing uptake. .Further psychiatric problems have been found to be more frequently associated with alcohol abuse that can either be alcohol-induced, alcohol-related, or comorbid conditions (Shivani et al., 2002). The commonly reported psychiatric disorders include mood disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). with each of these having further clinical implications (Modesto-Lowe & Kranzler, 1999). .
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