The Insulin Receptor and Its Signaling Cascade: An Overview
Insulin is a crucial hormone that performs an integral function in glucose metabolism and mobile power homeostasis. It interacts with the insulin receptor (IR), a transmembrane protein, to induce signaling cascades that subsequently result in various results. Particularly, three distinct mobile results of insulin signaling are concerned: glucose uptake, lipid storage, and protein synthesis. Glucose uptake is probably the most broadly identified impact of insulin signaling. The binding of insulin to the IR triggers a sequence of tyrosine phosphorylation occasions that in the end activate the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. Subsequently, these proteins activate PI3K, which in flip prompts Akt, ensuing within the activation of GLUT4 transporters, permitting for glucose to be absorbed into cells (Rajala et al., 2016).
The second mobile impact of insulin signaling is the promotion of lipid storage. Insulin acts to activate the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyses triglyceride particles to permit for the storage of fatty acids in adipocytes (Kumar et al., 2021). Cont….
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