Gluconeogenesis is glycolysis in reverse with the exception of three steps that bypass energy barriers that, although they pull glycolysis forward, must be bypassed when going in the reverse direction. a) Name the enzymes of gluconeogenesis involved in the three bypasses to these energy barriers. The Three Enzymes of Gluconeogenesis Involved in Bypassing Energy Barriers

These Three Enzymes of Gluconeogenesis Are Responsible for Bypassing Energy Barriers
Gluconeogenesis refers to a metabolic path that reverses glycolysis. However, there are three necessary steps in order to overcome the energy barriers glycolysis relies upon. These enzymes include fructose 1/6-bisphosphatase and pyruvate carbonoxylase. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-1) is responsible for the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). As F6P cannot be produced from F1,6BP in its entirety, this reaction serves as a bypass. The reaction, though it is not favorable in terms of energy, is crucial for the gluconeogenesis pathway, as it allows the production glucose-6-phosphate, (G6P), (Mikheeva, et al.2020). Pyruvate carboxylase is what converts pyruvate (OAA) to oxaloacetate. While this reaction can be energetically incontourable, it’s necessary to gluconeogenesis since it allows for the production of PEP (Gonzalez, et al. 2016). The conversion of oxaloacetate into phosphoenolpyruvate is done by phosphoenolpyruvate carbonoxykinase. Cont….
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