The Role of Post-Translational Modifications in Eukaryotic Protein Localization
The localization of newly translated proteins within eukaryotic cells is an important process in cell functioning. To ensure proteins reach their appropriate destinations, post-translational modifications (PTMs) are employed. PTMs are chemical modifications to proteins that regulate their function, structure, and/or location. Through PTMs, proteins can be targeted to specific sites within the cell or even to extracellular locations. For example, studies have demonstrated that acetylation of histone proteins, which are involved in DNA packaging, can regulate their localization within the nucleus (Fang et al., 2020; Chang et al., 2016). In addition, PTMs can also facilitate the assembly of proteins into functional complexes. Phosphorylation is a common PTM that has been shown to play an important role in both protein localization and assembly. The phosphorylation of proteins can help them to interact with other proteins, allowing them to form complexes that can have specific cellular locations. For example, several studies have demonstrated the role of phosphorylation in the formation of ribosomal complexes (Liu et al., 2021; Sung et al., 2019). Cont…
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