The Entry Mechanism of Viral Particles into Host Cells
The entry of virus particles into host cells is a crucial step in infection and is determined by the virus particle and its capabilities as well as the characteristics of the host cell. The virus particles attach to the host cell and then enter the cell by one of three ways: physical envelopment, fusion with the cell membrane, or endocytosis (Esteves, 2018). Physical envelopment occurs when the virus particle is enveloped by the host cell membrane and pulled inside the cell. The virus particle must be of a size that is small enough to be enveloped by the host cell membrane, and the host cell must be susceptible to fusion (Cortez et al., 2020). Fusion with the cell membrane occurs when the viral envelope merges with the host cell membrane. This is a more common method of entry for enveloped viruses than physical envelopment. Fusion triggers the release of the viral contents into the host cell (Tellez et al., 2021). Cont….
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