Power outage probability, that is, the probability that the

received signal power falls below some power threshold level Pth, is used as a

hard performance measure. During signal outages due to occasional fades, the

receiver cannot decode the received signals or decodes with unacceptable number

of bit errors. Outage probability is typically applicable to slowly varying

signals. Such signals stay below the threshold level for a relatively long

time, once they undergo a deep fade. Since the outage threshold is generally

set to the minimum power required for acceptable performance, a slowly

Power outage probability, that is, the probability that the

received signal power falls below some power threshold level Pth, is used as a

hard performance measure. During signal outages due to occasional fades, the

receiver cannot decode the received signals or decodes with unacceptable number

of bit errors. Outage probability is typically applicable to slowly varying

signals. Such signals stay below the threshold level for a relatively long

time, once they undergo a deep fade. Since the outage threshold is generally

set to the minimum power required for acceptable performance, a slowly varying

channel with received power falling below Pth is not usable. Power outages are

observed more under shadowing. The outage probability is not meaningful for

multipath fading channels for high mobility users, since a fade lasts for the duration

of small number of bits. However, pedestrians are more vulnerable to power

outages since they remain almost stationary as they communicate. Thus, if a

pedestrian suffers a deep fade, his channel may be unusable for duration

several hundreds and even thousands of bits. In this problem we compute outage

probability for pedestrian users in Nakagami-m fading channels.

a. Using the pdf of the SNR for Nakagami-m fading, determine

the probability that P < pth,="" where="" pth="" _="" pav="" determines="" the="" outage="" threshold="" level="" below="" the="" average="" power="" level=""
b. Determine the outage probability for m = 1, 2 and outage
thresholds 0 dB, 10 dB, and 20 dB below Pav.
c. For a power outage probability of Pout, determine the
ratio Pth/Pav in terms of the fading parameter m, and outage probability Pout.
Compute Pth/Pav in dB for m = 1 and Pout = 0.01.
d. Noting that the outage probability also shows the
fraction of time that the channel is not usable, determine the effective data
rate for a 1 Mbps system for m = 1 and 2 and outage thresholds 0 dB, 10 dB, and
20 dB below the average power level.
e. How can you reduce signal power outages?

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