|The human ?-globin gene has two alleles, HS and HA, that are associated with different levels of fitness. Homozygous HS individuals have sickle-cell anemia and lower fitness, while heterozygous HSHA individuals have a resistance to malaria but a normal fitness. Homozygous HA individuals have the highest fitness but are most susceptible to malaria (Kumar, 2020). Thus, if a malaria vaccine was created that was 100% effective, affordable, and widely available, the frequency of the HS allele would be expected to decrease in the population. This decrease in the HS allele is due to the fact that the vaccine would eliminate the selective advantage of the HSHA genotype, which is the resistance to malaria. As a result, the HS allele would no longer provide a protective advantage, leading to a decrease in its frequency (Giammanco et al., 2019). Additionally, the availability of the malaria vaccine could reduce the prevalence of malaria in endemic regions, further decreasing the selective advantage of the HS allele. Cont….|
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