write literature review pages on Investigating the lack of Information and Communication Technology Infrastructure investment in the Rural Schools Investigating the Lack of Information and Communication Technology Infrastructure

Investigation of the Lack of Information and Communication Technology Infrastructure

Investment in Rural Schools  Technology has become an increasingly crucial part of education and workforce success in today’s world. This is especially true for rural schools where the lack of funding in comparison to urban schools has led to a wide technology gap (Valerien & Girault, 2018). Rural schools are less able to access information and technology infrastructure than their better-off counterparts (Vargas 2020). Limited computer resources and lower Internet access limit the educational possibilities rural schools offer students (Liles 2015).   The effects of the digital divide between rural and urban areas can be seen in the disparities between students of these areas in terms of overall academic success (Manglay & Chaurasia, 2016). Thomas et. al. Huang (2018), Huang et.al. According to Huang and colleagues (2019), rural schools fall further behind when there is inequal access to ICT infrastructure. Multiple strategies are needed to address rural school’s lack of ICT access. The strategies that are needed include improving the digital infrastructure and providing additional resources as well as increasing digital literacy. (Mikami et. al., 2002).  Understanding the causes behind the low investment in ICT infrastructure for rural schools is essential to closing the technology gap. Investments in ICT infrastructure will improve the educational opportunities of rural schools. These resources will be more accessible and efficient if they are tailored to rural libraries, schools and communities.  References  Huang, G., Harrison, K., & Stephens, M. (2019). A one-to-one program with a laptop has a positive impact on attitudes and academic performance in rural high schools. Computers & Education, 131, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103281  Liles, R.E. (2015). (2015). Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 19(3), 55-68. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v19i3.507  Manglay, S., & Chaurasia, R.K. (2016). India: The impact of gender and rural-urban differences on education quality International Journal of Educational Development, 48, 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.01.006  Mikami, A., Chattopadhyay, T., Hogan, K., Dunn, M. & Sheridan, K. (2021). Teaching, counseling, and administrator perspectives on educational equity in rural settings. Teacher Education Quarterly, 48(1), 170–189. https://doi.org/10.1080/07316992.2020.1734589  Thomas, L., Ali, N., & Fletcher, E. (2018). Digital Equity: Examining the effects of technology on rural education. Educational Technology & Society, 21(3), 54-64.  Valerien, K. C., & Girault, I. (2018). Digital Divide in Rural Areas: Analyzing the Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on Economic Activity, and Telecom Infrastructure Investments On Economic Activity, and Growth. Southern Economic Journal, 85(2), 369-393. https://doi.org/10.1002/soej.12263  Vargas, C. (2020). Researching the potential for education and technology in remote communities. Canadian Journal of Education, 43(4), 137–161. https://www.revues.mshparisnord.org/canedu/index.php/canedu/article/view/2486Cont…



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